The UNIQUE function replicates and extends Excel’s Remove Duplicates feature in formula form. The UNIQUE function allows us to return a list of unique values in a list or range. By default, the UNIQUE function will return multiple values, which will be placed in the neighboring cells (to the bottom and/or to the right). I.e., we are dealing with dynamic array formulas here. The syntax of the UNIQUE function is as follows: = UNIQUE ( array ; [by_col] ; …

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## SORT & SORTBY functions

Two related sorting functions, SORT and SORTBY, replicate and extend Excel AutoFilter sorting functionality in formula form. The SORT function can be used to sort the contents of a range or array based on the values in that range or array, while the SORTBY function can be used to sort the contents of a range or array based on the values in the corresponding range or array, as illustrated here: By default, these functions will return multiple values, which will …

## SUMIFS criteria: INDEX MATCH or XLOOKUP criteria

Using the SUMIFS function, we can sum all of the values in a defined column (or row) that meet one or more criteria. SUMIFS criteria can reference cells, contain values or text, contain logical tests, or contain formulas and functions. By nesting the INDEX MATCH combination or the XLOOKUP function as SUMIFS criteria, we can return values based on criteria that are not present in the table we are returning values from. Consider the following example: This table contains (repeating) …

## Excessively large files in Excel: How to remove blank cells

In order to limit file sizes, Excel typically doesn’t store information about the whole spreadsheet (all available 1048476 rows and XFD columns); only the part of the worksheet that contains information is stored. However, “empty” cells may contain leftover formatting or comments, thus forcing Excel to save parts of the spreadsheet that contain no useful information. This can cause excessively or even extremely large file sizes, occasionally combined with printing and calculation time issues. In order to restore proper functionality …

## SEQUENCE function

The SEQUENCE function generates a list of sequential numbers in an array. We can generate a list of sequential numbers in rows, columns, or both. By default, the SEQUENCE function will return multiple values, which will be placed in the neighboring cells (to the bottom and/or to the right). I.e., we are dealing with dynamic array formulas here. The syntax of the SEQUENCE function is as follows: =SEQUENCE ( rows ; [columns] ; [start] ; [step] ) Rows specifies …

## FILTER function

The FILTER function replicates and extends Excel AutoFilter filtering functionality in formula form. The FILTER function allows us to filter a range of data based on defined criteria. By default, the FILTER function will return multiple values, which will be placed in the neighboring cells (to the bottom and/or to the right). I.e., we are dealing with dynamic array formulas here. The syntax of the FILTER function is as follows: = FILTER ( array ; include ; [if_empty] ) …

## Lookup the 2nd, the 3rd, or the nth value

Both the MATCH function and the XLOOKUP function look only for the first (last) available match in the array. This is perfectly reasonable in most cases, as we are expecting to deal with unique identifiers when looking up data. However, sometimes we will have to look up the second, third, fourth, or nth value. Consider the following example: Our table contains a list of contract numbers in column B and contact email addresses in column A. Contract numbers are …

## Lookup with multiple criteria

If we have to look up items in tables where we can’t use unique identifiers (there are no names located in a table column that contains data in all of the rows, and that data is non-repeating), we will probably have to resort to matching multiple criteria in multiple columns. Consider the following example: Each year, multiple game tournaments are held in repeating cities, organized by various repeating organizers. Items in the column City are not unique, nor are …

## Combining SUMIFS with XLOOKUP

Using the SUMIFS function, we can sum all of the values in a defined column (or row) that meet one or more criteria. When SUMIFS is combined with XLOOKUP, that sum range doesn’t have to be defined anymore; it is now rather specified in the function arguments. By combining SUMIFS with XLOOKUP, we can then sum all of the values that meet multiple criteria in different rows and columns and do this in a simple way, avoiding complex and resource-intensive …

## XLOOKUP function

We’ve previously covered how we can combine INDEX and MATCH functions in order to “look up” data. The XLOOKUP function works much the same way as the INDEX MATCH combination. It is intended to replace (still wildly used) legacy functions with outdated syntax and limited capabilities, such as VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, and LOOKUP, while retaining accessibility. The XLOOKUP function searches a range or an array for a match and returns the corresponding item from a second range or array. The …