INDEX function The INDEX function returns the value from a range of cells based on row and column specified in the function arguments. We are simplifying here, the INDEX function can actually return values from one or more arrays – i.e. broader term for lists of data which includes cell ranges. But the most common use is with cell ranges, as that is the typical way of structuring data in Excel. Syntax of the INDEX function is as follows: …

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## Conditional calculations

IF functions for cell ranges In our previous section we’ve primarily dealt with testing conditions inside of a row, i.e. one or more cells in that row, and returning some kind of a result based on conditions in that row. While that is useful when we want to add something new to our rows, we will often have to deal with retrieving data based on criteria from whole ranges of cells, sometimes containing thousands of rows and columns. IF function …

## Conditional statements

IF function basics Conditional statements, conditional expressions, conditional processing, IF-THEN or IF-THEN-ELSE are all names for a programming concept where conditions are tested and actions are performed if conditions are met. If a certain condition is met, something is calculated. If that certain condition is not met, either nothing happens, or something else is calculated. In Excel, when conditions are met, something is TRUE. When conditions are not met, something is FALSE. TRUE and FALSE are logical values. They are …

## Date and Time in Excel

How are date and time stored and formatted? In our previous section, we’ve already established that, no matter how date and/or time is formatted and possibly edited, underlying values saved in cells are still decimal numbers. Let’s expand on that. Excel era starts on January 1, 1900. If we enter number 1 in the cell and format it as date, the date we will see is in fact January 1, 1900. Zero will provide for a nonexistent date of January …

## Numbers in Excel

How are numbers stored, formatted and calculated? When dealing with numbers in Excel we should be aware of a few things: numbers in Excel can be formatted in many ways: plain numbers, currency, percentage, date etc. no matter how they are formatted and possibly edited, underlying values saved in cells are still decimal numbers those decimal numbers that Excel uses and calculates with go up to 15 decimal places (and even with that, there are caveats) this is not changed …

## Text in Excel

Text-related features Excel may have a reputation for crunching numbers, but text formatted data such as names, addresses and descriptions is often encountered. Excel is also often used for processing data from wide variety of unrelated databases, applications and web sites. With those, issues such as numbers formatted as text, text formatted as numbers, multiple text fields combined into a single cell and broken tables are not uncommon. Further complicating things, Excel functions designed to manipulate text formatted data are …

## Spreadsheet basics

Starting with spreadsheets Spreadsheets are used to store and manipulate data. Spreadsheet data will usually be organized as a table, given that spreadsheet itself is one giant array of empty table cells. Table cells can contain a value (text or number) or a formula. Formulas calculate new values, usually by referencing existing values, and parameters of those calculations can be easily changed by user. These simple concepts can then be used to perform either basic tasks, i.e. you can use …