## How to look up the next smaller item or the next larger item

The XLOOKUP function searches a range or an array for a match and returns the corresponding item from a second range or array. The syntax of the XLOOKUP function is as follows: = XLOOKUP ( lookup_value ; lookup_array ; return_array ; if_not_found ; match_mode ; search_mode ) The lookup value can be either a text or a number, inputted directly into the function or as a cell reference.   When looking up numbers, other than match type 0, exact match,

## How to use less than or greater than MATCH

We can use the INDEX function to designate a cell range (array) from which we want to retrieve data and, at the same time, use the MATCH function to specify the address of a cell in that cell range (array), i.e., row and column.   The MATCH function returns the relative position of the item in the range, either a row or a column. The relative position is returned in the form of an integer number, such as 1, 2,

## Combining FILTER with XLOOKUP

The FILTER function allows us to filter a range of data based on criteria defined for specified corresponding arrays. By combining FILTER with XLOOKUP, that corresponding array and/or filtering criteria can be returned from (un)related tables. We can FILTER, and in the end, SUM, values based on criteria that are not present in the table we are returning values from.   In the following example, we will show how to use XLOOKUP in order to return filtering criteria: This table

## Combining FILTER with INDEX MATCH

The FILTER function allows us to filter a range of data based on criteria defined for specified corresponding arrays. By combining FILTER with INDEX MATCH, that corresponding array and/or filtering criteria can be returned from (un)related tables. We can FILTER, and in the end, SUM, values based on criteria that are not present in the table we are returning values from.   In the following example, we will show how to use INDEX MATCH in order to return filtering criteria:

## UNIQUE function

The UNIQUE function replicates and extends Excel’s Remove Duplicates feature in formula form. The UNIQUE function allows us to return a list of unique values in a list or range. By default, the UNIQUE function will return multiple values, which will be placed in the neighboring cells (to the bottom and/or to the right). I.e., we are dealing with dynamic array formulas here.   The syntax of the UNIQUE function is as follows: = UNIQUE ( array ; [by_col] ;

## SORT & SORTBY functions

Two related sorting functions, SORT and SORTBY, replicate and extend Excel AutoFilter sorting functionality in formula form. The SORT function can be used to sort the contents of a range or array based on the values in that range or array, while the SORTBY function can be used to sort the contents of a range or array based on the values in the corresponding range or array, as illustrated here: By default, these functions will return multiple values, which will

## SEQUENCE function

The SEQUENCE function generates a list of sequential numbers in an array. We can generate a list of sequential numbers in rows, columns, or both. By default, the SEQUENCE function will return multiple values, which will be placed in the neighboring cells (to the bottom and/or to the right). I.e., we are dealing with dynamic array formulas here.   The syntax of the SEQUENCE function is as follows: =SEQUENCE ( rows ; [columns] ; [start] ; [step] ) Rows specifies

## FILTER function

The FILTER function replicates and extends Excel AutoFilter filtering functionality in formula form. The FILTER function allows us to filter a range of data based on defined criteria. By default, the FILTER function will return multiple values, which will be placed in the neighboring cells (to the bottom and/or to the right). I.e., we are dealing with dynamic array formulas here.   The syntax of the FILTER function is as follows: = FILTER ( array ; include ; [if_empty] )

## Lookup the 2nd, the 3rd, or the nth value

Both the MATCH function and the XLOOKUP function look only for the first (last) available match in the array. This is perfectly reasonable in most cases, as we are expecting to deal with unique identifiers when looking up data. However, sometimes we will have to look up the second, third, fourth, or nth value.   Consider the following example: Our table contains a list of contract numbers in column B and contact email addresses in column A. Contract numbers are

## Lookup with multiple criteria

If we have to look up items in tables where we canâ€™t use unique identifiers (there are no names located in a table column that contains data in all of the rows, and that data is non-repeating), we will probably have to resort to matching multiple criteria in multiple columns.   Consider the following example: Each year, multiple game tournaments are held in repeating cities, organized by various repeating organizers. Items in the column City are not unique, nor are